Universal Records

Tuesday 19 September 2017 - 23:34:46 Posted by  Bobby

Hottest planet in the Solar System

venusrecord

 The surface of Venus, 867°F (464°C). At its hottest, Mercury comes close: 800°F (430°C). Venus's thick atmosphere traps the Sun's heat, so midnight temperatures are as hot as those at noontime. (And the rocks are hot enough to glow dull red!)

Coldest recorded surface in the Solar System

Triton 1

 The surface of Triton, the largest satellite of Neptune. When the Voyager 2 probe passed this world in 1989, it found a frigid surface with a temperature measured at -391°F (-235°C).

Biggest Crater in the Solar System

aitken

 The Aitken Basin near the Moon's southern pole, 1,600 miles (2,500 km) in diameter. This ancient impact star is so heavily marked with smaller craters that its existence was not confirmed until the Lunar Orbiter program in the 1960s. Detailed mapping from the 1994 Clementine lunar orbiter mission revealed that this broad depression in the lunar farside is an average of 6.2 miles (10 km) lower than the surrounding highlands.

Highest Mountain in the Solar System

olympus

 Olympus Mons on the western hemisphere of Mars, Rising 17 miles (27 km) above the local surface, its base about 340 miles (550 km) across. The second highest is Maxwell Montes on the eastern hemisphere of Venus, which Rises 7 miles (11 km) above the planet's average surface. Earth's highest peak is officially Mount Everest, 5.5 miles (8.8 km) above sea level. However, Hawaii's Mauna Kea can also claim to be the highest, since it rises about 5.6 miles (9 km) above the ocean floor.

Largest Canyon in the Solar System

marsglobe1

 Valles Marineris on Mars, roughly 2,400 miles (3,800 km) long, with a maximum width of about 370 miles (600 km) and a maximum depth of 4.5 miles (7 km). If it were in the United States, this canyon would extend from San Francisco on the west coast to the Appalachian Mountains in Virginia near the east coast. In Europe, it would stretch from Paris to Russia's Ural Mountains.

Largest Planet in the Solar System

Jupiterrecord

 Jupiter, with 317.8 times the mass of Earth and just under 11 times its diameter. Jupiter contains more mass than all the rest of the planets, satellite, comments, and asteroids combined.

Largest known planet

unknown

 An unnamed planet orbiting the star HD 114762. This planet appears to have 11 times the mass of Jupiter, but some astronomers think it may actually be a brown dwarf, an object that is like a small, dim, cool star. If it is a brown dwarf, then the most massive planet would be one with 6.6 times Jupiter's mass that orbits the star 70 Viginis.

Largest satellite in the Solar System

ganymede

 Jupiter's Ganymede, 3,270 miles (5,262 km) in diameter. If Ganymede, orbited the Sun instead of Jupiter, it would easily qualify as a planet. It is larger than either Mercury or Pluto.

Largest Meteorite

hoba

 Hoba meteorite in Namibia, weighing 65 metric tons- about as heavy as 10 elephants. Discovered in 1920, this iron meteorite almost 10 feet (3 m) long still lies in the ground where it landed. It was originally even larger - part of the meteorite has weathered away.

Greatest Meteor Shower

leonids

 The Leonids on November 13, 1833, with up to 200,000 meteors per hour, Onlookers said that the meteors fell like snowflakes, while many thought the world was about to come to an end. The remarkable display helped astronomers realize that meteors were entering Earth's atmosphere from outer space, and were not just an Earth-based event like rain.

Largest Asteroid

ceres

 1 Ceres, 580 miles (933 km) in diameter. This largest of all asteroids was also the first to be found - and its discovery came on the first day of the 19th century: January 1st, 1801. It was discovered by Giuseppe Piazza (1746 - 1826) at the Palermo Observatory.

Largest Kuiper Belt Object

2003 UB313 big

 The diameter of an unnamed object cataloged 2003 UB313 is as yet undetermined, but estimates range from about 1,500 to over 3,000 miles (2400 - 5,000 km). Even the lower figure would make this object larger than Pluto, which some astronomers consider a KBO. Ub313 orbits the Sun between 38 and 97 AU with a period of 560 years. The largest known KBO that keeps within the outer edge of the Kuiper Belt throughout its orbit is Quaoar, with a diameter of 800 miles (1,300 km).

Closest Comet to Earth

lexell

 Comet Lexell in 1770, at a distance of 1.4 million miles (2.2 million km) from Earth - less than 6 times the distance to the Moon. Despite coming so close, this Comet never developed much of a tail and its head looks no bigger than five times the size of the Moon in our night sky.

Longest Comet Tail

greatcomet

 Great Comet of March 1843, 190 million miles (300 million km) long. This tail was long enough to reach from the Sun to well past the orbit of Mars.

Most Massive Star in the Sky

etacarina

 Eta Carinae, approximately 150 times as massive as the Sun. Astronomers are not certain if Eta Carinae is one star or a binary system.

Least Massive Star

gliese105c

 Gliese 105C, about 10 percent as massive as the Sun. This is about as small as a star can be and still be a true star (an object that fuses hydrogen into helium).

Nearest Star

proxima

 Proxima Centauri, possible third member of the Alpha Centauri system. This cool red dwarf star lies about 4.22 light-years away in the constellation Centaurus.

Broadest Star in the Sky

Betelgeuse

 Betelgeuse in Orion, about 800 times the Sun's diameter. If it replaced the Sun in our Solar System, this bloated red supergiant star would reach past the orbit of Jupiter.

Brightest Star in the Sky

sirius

 Sirius, with an apparent magnitude of -1.46. Sirius is a binary star 8.6 light-years away in Canis Major. The brightest star north of the celestial equator (and fourth brightest overall) is Arcturus in Bootes with an apparent magnitude of -0.04.

Globular Cluster with the most Stars

omega

 Omega Centauri, with some estimates of over 10 million stars. The Globular cluster measures over six hundred light-years from one extreme to the other, and is about 16,000 light years away. Some astronomers believe that Omega Centauri is a remnant core of a dwarf galaxy consumed by the Milky Way in the distant past.

Largest Constellation

hydra

Hydra, the Serpent, at 1,302 sq degrees, or 3.16 percent of the sky. Hydra snakes its way across 100 degrees of sky but its stars are faint: fewer than 100 are visible to the naked eye.

Smallest Constellation

crux

Crux, The Southern Cross, at 68.477 sq degrees, or 0.16 percent of the sky. Despite its small size, Crux, superimposed on the Milky Way, is a rich site for astronomers, and its distinctive pattern of 4 bright stars appears on the flags of four nations.

Most Massive Galaxy

m87

Giant elliptical M87 in the constellation of Virgo, with at least 800 billion Suns' worth of mass. M87 is a member of the Virgo cluster of galaxies.

Least Massive Galaxy

pegasusII

The Pegasus II dwarf elliptical, about 10 million solar masses. Smaller galaxies may exist, but as they are not very luminous, astronomers cannot detect them unless they lie closer to us.

Nearest Galaxy

Canis Major Dwarf

The Canis Major dwarf galaxy. This galaxy in Canis Major is 25,000 light years away from the solar system and 42,000 light years away from the center of the Milky Way. It Is the current record holder, but surveys find new dwarf elliptical galaxies every year or so, and an even closer galaxy may yet be found.

Most Distant Naked-eye Object

andromeda

Andromeda Galaxy (M31), 2.9 million light-years away. When you look at this galaxy, you are seeing light that left the galaxy when the most recent great Ice Ages were beginning on Earth. The spiral galaxy M33 in Triangulum is farther and fainter, and may be visible to the very keenest eye.

Most Distant Object Detected

unnamed

An unnamed galaxy in the constellation Fornax, the Furnace, 13 billion light-years away, and only 2,000 light-years across. The galaxy showed up in a Hubble Space Telescope image, gravitationally lensed by a much closer galaxy cluster. It is so distant that its light must have set out when the universe was just 750 million years old.

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